Masonry retaining walls are generally constructed to retain earth and resist the lateral pressure of the soil against the wall. Although these are very simple structures and commonly built in every nook and corner, yet many problems are encountered in the field. In the present paper, influence of geometry of masonry retaining walls have been studied and results are presented in the form of charts so that design/field engineers/researchers, working in highways/water resources/construction sector, can provide technoeconomic sections as per site conditions before constructing the massive masonry retaining walls.
Keywords: Retaining walls, Gravity, Breast wall, Shapes, Influence, Vertical face, Base/height ratio, Economic design
[1.] Chalisgaonkar, Rajendra(1987), Computer aided Design of Retaining Walls, Indian Concrete Journal, December.
[2.] Chalisgaonkar, Rajendra(1988), Inclined Retaining Walls, Indian Concrete Journal, August.
[3.] Chalisgaonkar, Rajendra(2018), Influence of Design Parameters on Earth Pressures behind Retaining Walls, Journal of Indian Highways, Indian Road Congress, New Delhi, Vol. 46, No.11, November.
[4.] Chalisgaonkar, Rajendra(2019), Charts for Techno Economic Design of Masonry Breast Walls, Water and Energy International, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi, Volume 62/RNI, No. 3, ISSN : 0974-4711, June.
[5.] Chalisgaonkar, Rajendra(2020), Revisiting Design of Gravity Retaining Walls, Journal of Indian Highways, Indian Road Congress, New Delhi, Vol. 48, No.4, April.
[6.] Coulomb, C. A.(1776) Essai sur une application des regles des maximis et minimis a quelques problems de statique relatifis a Parchitecture, Mem. Acad. Roy. Pres divers savants, Vol. 7, Paris.
[7.] Hoeg, K. and Murarka, R. P.(1974) Probabilistic Analysis and Design of a Retaining Wall, Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, Volume: 100, Issue Number: GT3, ISSN: 1090-0241
[8.] Kaveh, A., Talatahari, S. ·and Sheikholeslami, R.(2011) Optimum seismic design of gravity retaining walls using the Heuristic Big Bang-Big crunch algorithm, Second International Conference on Soft Computing Technology in Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, 01.
[9.] Masoud, Talal et al(2018) Optimization of Shape Design for Gravity Retaining Walls, International Journal of Innovative Science and Modern Engineering (IJISME) ISSN: 2319- 6386, Volume-5 Issue-8, October.
[10.] Mononobe, N.(1929) Earthquake proof construction of masonry dams, Proceedings of the World Engineering Congress, pp. 275 - 293, Tokyo, Japan.
[11.] Okabe, S.(1926) General theory of earth pressure, Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 2, no. 1.
[12.] Roy, R., Hinduja, S. and Teti, R.(2008) Recent advances in engineering design optimisation: challenges and future trends, CIRP Annals, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 697 - 715.
[13.] Sadoglu, Erol(2014) Design Optimization for Symmetrical Gravity Retaining Walls, ACTA Geotechnica Slovenica, p71-79.
[14.] (2008) Indian Standard Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures Part 1- Dead Loads-Unit Weights of Building Materials and Stored Materials, IS-875: Part 1, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[15.] (1998) Indian Standard Code of Practice: Retaining Wall for Hill Area – Guidelines, Part 1 Selection of Type of Wall, IS:14458 Part 1, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[16.] (1997) Indian Standard Code of Practice: Retaining Wall for Hilly Area - Guidelines IS:14458: Part 2, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[17.] (2014) Indian Standard Code of Practice: Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Part 3 – Bridges and Retaining Walls, IS:1893:Part 3, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[18.] (2014) Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road Bridges Section : VII Foundations and Substructure IRC:78, Indian Road Congress, New Delhi.
[19.] (2003) Indian Railway Standard Code of Practice for the Design of Sub Structure and Foundation of Bridges, Research Designs and Standards Organization, Lucknow.
The direct shear test and triaxial test were conducted on specimens with 0, 10, 20, and 30% clay contents under 50, 100, and 150 kPa overloads to investigate the effect of fine-grained on the strength of the sandy soil. Preparing the specimens requires determining the maximum dry unit weight and the optimum water content of the soil. Therefore, before conducting the main tests, a series of proctor compaction tests were performed on the soil specimens. The tests were conducted on clean sand and a mixture of sand and clay. The results of the triaxial test showed that the ultimate strength and failure strain increase by adding to the clay content to the specimens. Moreover, adding clay increases the residual strength of soil. Compared to the results of direct shear tests, the stress-strain behavior of specimens is dominated by the clay content as it increases the stiffness of the sand-clay mixture.
Keywords: Triaxial Test, Direct Shear Test, Clay Soil, Sandy Soil
 Salgado, R., Bandini, P. and Karim, A., "Shear strength and
stiffness of silty sand," Journal of Geotechnical and
Geoenvironmental Engineering, 126(5), pp.451-462, 2000. doi:
 Thevanayagam, S., "Effect of fines and confining stress on undrained shear strength of silty sands," Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124(6), pp.479-491, 1998. doi: [10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1998)124:6(479)].
 Head, K.H., "Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing Volume 2: Permeability," Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests, Pentech Pres, London, 1982.
 Bayoglu, E., "Shear strength and compressibility behavior of sand-clay mixtures," (Doctoral dissertation, M.Sc. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Middle-East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey), 1995.
 Novais-Ferreira, H., "The Clay Content and the Shear Strength in Sand Clay Mixture," In Soil Mech & Fdn Eng Proc/South Africa/ (Vol. 1), August, 1971. doi: [10.15680/IJIRSET.2015.04 06117].
 Pitman, T.D., Robertson, P.K. and Sego, D.C., "Influence of fines on the collapse of loose sands," Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 31(5), pp.728-739, 1994. doi: [10.1139/t94-084].
 ASTM D2487-17, "Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017. doi: [10.1520/D2487-17].
 ASTM D854-14, "Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014. doi: [10.1520/D0854-14].
 ASTM D4253-16, "Standard Test Methods for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils Using a Vibratory Table," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016. doi: [10.1520/D4253-16E01].
 ASTM D4254-16, "Standard Test Methods for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016. doi: [10.1520/D4254-16].
 ASTM D422-63(2007) e2, “Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils (Withdrawn 2016),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007. doi: [10.1520/D0422-63R07E02].
 ASTM D4318-17e1, "Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017. doi: [10.1520/D4318-17E01].
 ASTM D698-12e2, "Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ftlbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2012. doi: [10.1520/D0698-12E02].
 ASTM D3080 / D3080M-11, "Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils under Consolidated Drained Conditions," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011. doi: [10.1520/D3080_D3080M-11].
 ASTM D2850-03, "Standard Test Method for Unconsolidated-Undrained Triaxial Compression Test on Cohesive Soils, ASTM International," West Conshohocken, PA, 2003. doi: [10.1520/D2850-03].
Recent studies within the realm of geotechnical engineering have further expanded on the effects, which liquefaction has to ground motion and soil mechanics. However, the investigation of building/infrastructure damages has not been explored to a deeper level of understanding. This paper explores the possible factors that can explain the damages a building or structure experiences due to liquefaction. In addition, current code requirements and common building practices is investigated and evaluated based on the findings. Keywords: liquefaction, settlement, tilting, building pounding, building separation
 American Society of Civil Engineers. (2017). "Minimum
Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other
Structures". ASCE/SEI 7-16, USA.
 Cubrinovski, M., Taylor, M., Robinson, K., Winkley, A., Hughes, M., Haskell, J., Bradley, B., "Key factors in the liquefaction-induced damage to buildings and infrastructure in Christchurch: Preliminary findings" in the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 2018.
 Hamada, M., Isoyama, R., Wakamatsu, K., "Liquefaction- Induced Ground Displacement and its Related Damage to Lifeline Facilities" Special Issue of Soils and Foundations, pp. 81-97, Jan. 1996.
 International Code Council. (2009). "International Building Code". IBC 2009, Falls Church, VA.
 Shen, M., Chen, Q., Zhang, J., Juang, C.H., (2018) "Case Histories of Liquefaction-Induced building Damage-Focusing on the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake" in International Foundation Congress and Equipment Expo 2018, Orlando, FL, 2018, pp. 297-308.
 Shrestha, B., Hao, H., "Building Pounding Damages Observed during the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake" Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 2018.
 NBC (National Building Code). (1993). "Seismic design of buildings in Nepal." NBC 105, Kathmandu, Nepal.
 Tokimatsu, K., Katsumata, K., "Liquefaction-Induced Damage to Buildings in Urayasu City during the 2011 Tohoku Pacific Earthquake" in the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Tokyo, Japan, 2012.
 Tokimatsu, K., Kojima, H., Kuwayama, S., Abe, A., Midorikawa, S., "Liquefaction-Induced Damage to Buildings in 1990 Luzon Earthquake" Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 290-307, 1994.